Division on Visual Impairments


A quarterly newsletter from the Council for Exceptional Children's Division on Visual Impairments containing practitioner tips for Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments, Certified Orientation and Mobility Specialists, and other professionals.

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Page 24 of 89

VIDBE-Q Volume 66, Issue 2 25 and procedures. By initially surveying teachers about their practices, we confirmed that there was little agreement about what should be included in an FVA. We were encouraged that more than 85% of the teachers reported that they assess near visual acuity, distance visual acuity, peripheral visual fields, tracking, and color perception (Kaiser & Herzberg, 2017). However, there was less agreement in other areas, such as referrals for orientation and mobility (O&M) or clinical low vision evaluations. Next, we asked TSVIs to share a copy of the tools that they use for data collection in the FVA process. We compared these tools with the list of 23 components often used in the field by Erin and Paul (1996) and D'Andrea and Farrenkopf (2000). Content across the tools varied greatly. Slightly more than 50% of the tools included information about ocular conditions or interviews (Kaiser & Herzberg, 2021). In addition, less than 25% of the data collection tools included a screening about the possible need for an O&M evaluation and clinical low vision evaluation (Kaiser & Herzberg, 2021). In order to promote consistency, we designed a Delphi study to collect information and build consensus among university personnel and TSVIs (See Kaiser et al., 2020). A Delphi study is a research method where groups of experts provide feedback and explore divergent opinions (Hsu & Sandford, 2007). This method uses multiple rounds of responses until a minimum level of consensus is

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