Division on Visual Impairments

DVI Quarterly Volume 58(1)

A quarterly newsletter from the Council for Exceptional Children's Division on Visual Impairments containing practitioner tips for Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments, Certified Orientation and Mobility Specialists, and other professionals.

Issue link: http://dvi.uberflip.com/i/208464

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Page 21 of 57

OVERVIEW OF CHANGES FROM CURRENT LITERARY BRAILLE TO UEB The following is not intended as a comprehensive list of each and every difference between UEB and current braille. However, it covers the most significant changes that will be noted by the general reader of braille. CHANGES Nine Contractions Eliminated by ble ation into com ally to dd o'clock The overarching reasons for deletion of these contractions are the need for accurate automatic forward- and back-translation between print and braille, the need to allow for more symbols without creating conflicts in the code, and the principle of reducing exceptions to braille rules. Here are more specifics: • • • • • • ation and ally were eliminated because they created complications in rules having to do with capital letters in the middle of words. to, into, and by were eliminated to allow for greater consistency in usage of other symbols. Also, the special spacing rules closed off options for making new symbols. com was eliminated to make room for greater flexibility in the placement and usage of hyphens and dashes. In current literary braille, a great deal of attention must be paid to the spacing of dashes etc., slowing down the production of accurate braille. ble was eliminated to allow for unambiguous reading and writing of numbers wherever they occur in literary contexts. dd was eliminated to allow for a single way to show the period/dot/decimal point even when it occurs in the middle of words or numbers. o'clock was eliminated because of a problem with capitalization. The extent of a capitalized word indicator (double dot 6) includes only the actual letters immediately following the indicator. This means that the apostrophe terminates the effect of the double dot 6 (this rule reduces the frequency of the use of the capitals mode terminator). If the short-form word "o'clock" were fully capitalized under this rule, it would look like this: O'CLOCK ,,o',,c which is fairly awkward, and almost as long as the spelled out word. This is the only contraction with this problem and is relatively infrequently used. Overview of Changes from Current Literary Braille to UEB; BANA, March 2013 1

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